Flight Instructor Sidenotes

Computation – Rules of thumb

TC written exams common questions

IATRA questions

Flight Test Marking Scale

  • 1: performance is observed to include critical errors or the Aim of the test sequence/item is not achieved
    • Aircraft handling is performed with critical deviations and/or a lack of stability, rough use of controls or control of the aircraft is lost or in doubt.
    • Technical skills reveal unacceptable levels of depth of knowledge or comprehension of procedures, aircraft systems, limitations and performance characteristics that prevent a successful completion of the task.
    • Lapses in situational awareness occur due to a lack of appropriate scanning to maintain an accurate mental model of the situation or there is an inability to integrate the information available to develop and maintain an accurate mental model.
    • Flight management skills are ineffective, indecisive or noncompliant with mandated published procedures: and corrective countermeasures are not effective or applied. Safety margins are compromised or clearly reduced.
  • 2: performance is observed to include major errors
    • Aircraft handling is performed with major deviations and/or an occasional lack of stability, over/under control or abrupt control input.
    • Technical skills reveal deficiencies either in depth of knowledge or comprehension of procedures, aircraft systems, limitations and performance characteristics that do not prevent the successful completion of the task.
    • Situational awareness appears compromised as cues are missed or attended to late or the candidate takes more time than ideal to incorporate cues or changes into the operational plan.
    • Flight management skills are not consistent. Instrument displays, aircraft warnings or automation serve to avert an undesired aircraft state by prompting or remedying threats and errors that are noticed late.
    • Safety margins are not compromised, but poorly managed.
  • 3: performance is observed to include minor errors
    • Aircraft handling with appropriate control input but includes minor deviations.
    • Technical skills indicate an adequate knowledge of procedures, aircraft systems, limitations and performance characteristics to successfully complete the task.
    • Situational awareness is adequately maintained as candidate responds in a timely manner to cues and changes in the flight environment to maintain safety while achieving the aim of the sequence/item.
    • Flight management skills are effective. Threats are anticipated and errors are recognized and recovered.
    • Safety margins are maintained through effective use of aircraft systems and mandated operational protocols.
  • 4: performance is well executed considering existing conditions
    • Aircraft handling is smooth and positive with a high level of precision.
    • Technical skills indicate a thorough knowledge of procedures, aircraft systems, limitations and performance characteristics.
    • Situational awareness is indicated by continuous anticipation and vigilance.
    • Flight management skills are exemplary and threats are consistently anticipated, recognized and well managed.
    • Safety margins are maintained through consistent and effective management of aircraft systems and mandated operational protocols.

Learning Factors

  • Readiness
    • What?
      • Ensure students are mentally, physically and emotionally ready to learn
    • Why?
      • Students lacking motivation will not learn effectively
      • Some areas are beyond the instructor’s control: illness, tiredness, personal problems
    • How?
      • Use an attention getting opening
      • State the goal of the lesson and how it will be achieved
      • State the purpose of the lesson
      • Show how we can benefit from a new skill
      • Relate it to the familiar material
      • Before starting a new skill ensure that prior skills are mastered
  • Exercise
    • What?
      • Ensure students are engaging in both mental and physical meaningful activity
    • Why?
      • Learning and skills development require repetition and practice
      • Maintaining and sharpening skills require continuous work
    • How?
      • Question the student by “why” and “how” questions
      • When a student knows the facts, have them relate, not just repeat them
      • Challenge the students at their level
      • Frequently test students’ knowledge and abilities
      • Work on weak areas
      • Ensure that the practice has a specific goal
  • Primacy
    • What?
      • Teach it right the first time
    • Why?
      • First impressions are the strongest
      • Student may learn/imitate errors
    • How?
      • Be prepared
      • Rehearse the lessons
      • Master your skills ahead
      • Prepare to possible questions
  • Relationship
    • What?
      • Present lessons in the logical sequence from known to unknown, simple to complex, easy to difficult
      • Relate lessons to previous skills
    • Why?
      • Students will be more prepared to learn if they see the big picture and where the skill fits
    • How?
      • Lesson sequence should progress to more difficult ideas and skills
      • Review basic knowledge first
      • Learn new material in stages, mastering each stage before proceeding
      • Frequently summarize major points
      • Compare new material to the previous material
  • Intensity
    • What?
      • Use dramatic, realistic and unexpected thins as they are remembered longer
    • Why?
      • Boring lessons are not as memorable
      • Less learning with non-enthusiastic instructor
    • How?
      • Be sincere and enthusiastic towards the topic
      • Vary your speech rate and volume
      • Use effective gestures to animate explanation
      • Use a variety of training aids
      • Develop realistic scenarios, or actual experiences in the cockpit
      • Use imagination
  • Recency
    • What?
      • Summarizing and practicing the important points at the end of each lesson
    • Why?
      • The last thing learned will be remembered longest
    • How?
      • Use preflight briefings
      • Review main points by questioning
      • Summarize main points at the end of the lesson
      • After a sequence within a lesson ask questions on the material or summarize important information
      • Conduct a test as the final part of the lesson
      • Conduct reviews during intervals throughout the course where there is no new material
  • Effect
    • What?
      • Ensure students have a feeling of satisfaction from the lesson
    • Why?
      • Satisfaction strengthens learning
      • Defeat, frustration or anger impede learning
    • How?
      • Point out the positive aspects during the briefing
      • Discuss areas to improve and suggest how to accomplish that
      • Mastering the skill from the first time is not always possible, but feeling of accomplishment towards the goal should be felt
      • Observe the student carefully for signs of understanding/confusion
      • Show how to improve and praise when they do
      • Supply facts with reasons to assist remembering
      • Teach in stage, mastering each stage one at a time
      • Go back if earlier progress deteriorates
      • NEVER ridicule or make fun of the student

Levels of Learning

  • Familiarization
  • Knowledge (information)
  • Comprehension (understanding)
  • Application
  • Analysis
  • Synthesis
  • Evaluation

Learning Curve

  • Without review
    • 2 days: < 70% retained
    • 40 days: 40% retained
  • Greatest rate of forgetting: first 24-48 hours
  • Maintaining 70%+ level: reviews in
    • 2 days: 15 min
    • 7 days: 10 min
    • 28 days: 5 min

Demonstration-Performance Method

  • E – Explanation
  • D – Demonstration
  • S – Supervised practice
  • I – Instructor supervision
  • E – Evaluation

FTU (CARs 426)

Flight Training Operations: Operational Control System

  • CARs 406.50
  • Standards: CARs 426.50 – 426.64
  • Flight following procedures
  • Standards of training and qualifications for performing flight following
  • Flight authorization and preparation
  • Procedures for advising deferred defects
  • Operational information distribution and acknowledgement
  • Fuel and oil requirements
  • W&B
  • Accident or incident reporting
  • Procedures for flight monitoring and search and rescue notification
  • Use of checklists
  • Maintenance discrepancy reports and requirements of completion of flight
  • Current information of the airplanes’ location
  • Radio equipped for flight following from the base
  • Qualified person must be on duty for flight training
  • Each training flight must be authorized and acknowledged in the daily record
  • PIC is responsible for flight watch

Daily Flight Record (CARs 426.56)

  • Date
  • Aircraft registration
  • PIC and student
  • Exercise or lesson plan
  • FI authorization/acknowledgement
  • Time up and down
  • Air time and flight time
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04/09/2017: My First Flight
04/25/2017: EASA PPL written exam (6 exams passed)
05/21/2017: Radio Operator Certificate (Europe VFR)
05/22/2017: EASA PPL written exam (all passed)
05/26/2017: The First Solo!
05/28/2017: Solo cross-country >270 km
05/31/2017: EASA PPL check-ride
07/22/2017: EASA IFR English
08/03/2017: 100 hours TT
12/04/2017: The first IFR flight
12/28/2017: FAA IR written
02/16/2018: FAA IR check-ride
05/28/2018: FAA Tailwheel endorsement
06/04/2018: FAA CPL long cross-country
06/07/2018: FAA CPL written
07/16/2018: FAA CPL check-ride
07/28/2018: FAA CPL ME rating
08/03/2018: FAA HP endorsement
06/03/2019: EASA ATPL theory (6/14)
07/03/2019: EASA ATPL theory (11/14)
07/15/2019: FAA IR IPC
07/18/2019: FAA CPL SES rating
08/07/2019: EASA ATPL theory (done)
10/10/2019: EASA NVFR
10/13/2019: EASA IR/PBN SE
11/19/2019: Solo XC > 540 km
12/06/2019: EASA CPL
12/10/2019: EASA AMEL
02/20/2020: Cessna 210 endorsement
08/30/2021: FAVT validation
05/27/2022: TCCA CPL/IR written
05/31/2022: Radio Operator Certificate Canada