Exam Preparation Info – Important Information to Remember

PAVE Checklist

  • P – pilot
  • A – aircraft
  • V – enVironment
  • E – External Pressures

I M SAFE Checklist

  • I – illness
  • M – medication
  • S- stress
  • A – alcohol
  • F – fatigue
  • E – emotions

TCCA Frequences (AIP GEN 3.4)

  • 121.5: distress
  • 123.2: uncontrolled aerodrome traffic
  • 126.7: enroute Canada-wise
  • 123.4: gliders chatting
  • 122.8: Northern Ontario enroute
  • 122.75: air-to-air Southern Domestic Airspace (SDA)
  • 123.45: air-to-air Northern Domestic Airspace (NDA) and the NAT

Charts

  • 122.1R – receive only VOR frequency (pilot can transmit)
  • M123.2 – mandatory frequency
  • A123.2 – aerodrome traffic frequency
  • 122.1 – broadcast only frequency (pilot can receive)
  • 122.1 – no voice VOR

TCCA Required Equipment for Power-Driven

  • Checklist
  • The necessary current charts and publications for the route
  • Hand-held fire extinguisher
  • Timepiece
  • First aid kit
  • At night: flashlight for each crew member
  • CAR 602.59

TCCA VFR Required Equipmet: MATES (CARS 605.14)

  • M – Magnetic compass
  • A – Altimeter, Airspeed
  • T – Timepiece, Tachometer
  • E – Engine instruments
  • S – Survival equipment

TCCA VFR OTT (CARS 605.15)

  • VFR day
  • Sensitive altimeter adjustable to barometric pressure
  • Ice prevention for airspeed systems
  • CDI
  • Attitude indicator
  • Turn coordinator
  • NDA – means of non-magnetic direction finding
  • Radio (two-way communication)
  • Radio navigation

TCCA VFR Night (CARS 605.16)

  • VFR day
  • Sensitive altimeter adjustable to barometric pressure
  • Turn coordinator
  • Electrical source
  • Fuses: at least 50% of spare fuses of each rating
  • CDI (for XC)
  • NDA – means of non-magnetic direction finding
  • Instruments illumination
  • Landing light (for passengers)
  • Position and anti-collision lights

TCCA IFR (CARS 605.18)

  • VFR night
  • Attitude indicator
  • VSI
  • Outside air temperature gauge
  • Ice prevention for airspeed systems
  • Power failure or vacuum failure indicator
  • Alternative static source
  • Radio (two-way communication)
  • Radio navigation allowing to proceed in case of failure of this equipment

VFR-Over-The-Top and On-Top

Over-The-Top (OTT) is for VFR pilots, and requires a separate rating (for private pilots). VFR rules apply.

On-Top is for IFR only, and allows to fly at VFR altitudes instead of assigned IFR altitude.

TCCA VFR Visibility/Distance to Clouds (CAR 602.114 – 602.117)

AirspaceFlight visibilityDistance from cloudNotes
HorizontallyVertically
Control Zones>= 3 miles (ground visibility if reported)1 mile500 feetmust be >= 500 feet AGL
Controlled airspace>= 3 miles1 mile500 feet
Uncontrolled airspace>= 1000 feet AGL>= 1 mile (day)
>= 3 miles (night)
2000 feet500 feet
< 1000 feet AGL>= 2 miles (day)
>= 3 miles (night)
clear of clouds
< 1000 feet AGL (helicopter)>= 1 mile (day)
>= 3 miles (night)
clear of clouds
Canadian VFR minumuns

If the surface is not in sight, VFR Over-the-Top (602.116) applies:

  • day only
  • cruise portion of the flight only
  • 1000 feet vertically from clouds
  • where the aircraft is operated between two cloud layers, the vertical distance between the layers is at least 5,000 feet
  • flight visibility at the cruising altitude of the aircraft is at least 5 miles
  • the weather at the aerodrome of destination is forecast to have no broken, overcast or obscured layer lower than 3,000 feet above the planned flight altitude and the ground visibility is forecast to be five miles or greater with no thunderstorms or precipitation.

Special VFR (602.117)

  • the pilot MUST request it
  • radio
  • visual contact with the ground
  • flight visibility >= 1 sm
  • clear of clouds
  • authorization from ATC
  • at night only for landings

Fuel Requirements

  • VFR day: destination aerodrome + 30 minutes at normal cruising speed
  • VFR night: destination aerodrome + 45 minutes at normal cruising speed
  • IFR prop: flight to the destination, approach, missed approach, alternate + 45 minutes
  • IFR turbo-jet: flight to the destination, approach, missed approach, alternate + 30 minutes

Fuel Definitions

  • Reserve fuel – extra fuel the the unforeseeable
  • Contingency fuel – extra fuel for the foreseeable:
    • weather
    • traffic
    • extra taxiing
    • unfamiliar with the area
    • flying around the body of water
  • Required fuel – climb, cruise, reserve + taxi/contingency if given
  • Used fuel – what’s burnt off

MF (Mandatory Frequency) Procedures (CAR 602.97, AIM 4.5.7)

  • MF area normally extends 5 nm and 3000 ft AAL

Mandatory Frequency Callouts

  • Before entering the maneuvering area
  • Before entering the runway
  • Before takeoff
  • Leaving circuit
  • At least 5 min before entering the MF area
    • Position
    • Altitude
    • ETA
    • Intentions
  • Leaving the MF area
  • Joining the circuit
  • Downwind
  • Final
  • Cleared the runway

ATF (Aerodrome Traffic Frequency) Procedures

  • ATF area normally extends 5 nm and 3000 ft AAL
  • Crossover at least 500 feet above the circuit
  • Descent at the upwind side to cross midfield at circuit height, or join downwind at circuit height
  • All turns to the left if not specified

Light Signals (Air)

  • steady green: cleared to land
  • flashing green: return to landing
  • steady red or red flare: give way and continue circling
  • flashing red: airport unsafe, do not land
  • red pyrotechnical: do not land for the time being

Light Signals (Ground)

  • steady green: cleared for takeoff
  • flashing green: cleared to taxi
  • steady red: stop
  • flashing red: taxi clear of landing area
  • flashing white: return to starting point
  • blinking runway lights: clear the runway

ADIZ Penetration

Within 20 NM and 5 min of the ETA

Wake Turbulence Separation (Radar)

  • heavy behind heavy: 4 miles
  • medium behind heavy: 5 miles
  • light behind heavy: 6 miles
  • light behind medium: 4 miles
  • NON-Radar: 2 min after heavy

Recency Requirements

  • Acted as PIC or co-pilot in the previous 5 years OR within the previous 12 months completed flight review and passed PSTAR
  • BFR – recurrent training program within 24 months preceding the flight:
    • A flight review with an instructor
    • Safety seminar conducted by TC
    • TC approved recurrent training program
    • Self-paced study program
    • Training program or PPC
    • Issuance or renewal a license/rating/permit
    • Written exam for a license/permit/rating
  • Passengers: 5 takeoffs and landings within the previous 6 months
  • Flight crew member in commercial operations: 3 takeoffs and landings within the previous 90 days
  • Instrument rating: instrument flight test or IPC within the previous 24 months
  • Instrument rating: after the first 12 months 6 instrument hours and 6 approaches to minimums in the past 6 months

Personal Logs

  • Date
  • Aircraft type
  • Aircraft registration
  • Flight crew position (PIC, co-pilot, student)
  • Flight conditions (day, night, VFR, IFR)
  • Point of departure
  • Point of arrival
  • Flight time

Minimum Altitudes and Distances

  • Over built-up area: 1000 feet above the highest obstacle within a horizontal radius of 2000 feet
  • Non built-up area: 500 feet from any person, structure, vehicle or vessel
  • National parks: 2000 feet AGL

Aerobatic Maneuvers

  • Visibility 3 miles
  • 2000 feet AGL
  • NOT over a built-up area or open-air assembly
  • NOT in a controlled airspace
  • With passengers:
    • More than 20 h aerobatic or more than 10 h dual aerobatic
    • At least 1 h of aerobatic within the preceding 6 months

Airways and Canadian Domestic Routes

  • LF/MF: 4.34 NM on each side out to 49.66 NM, 5 egrees
  • VHF/UHF: 4 NM on each side out to 50.8 NM, 4.5 degrees
  • T-routes: low-level controlled RNAV routes below 18 000 ASL, 10 NM on each side
  • Q-routes: high-level fixed RNAV routes at and above 18 000 ASL, require RNAV system with performance capabilities
  • L-routes: low-level uncontrolled fixed RNAV routes below 18 000 ASL

VOR Accuracy Test

  • VOT: +-4 degrees
  • Overfly: +-6 degrees
  • Testing: every 30 days for IFR
    • Date
    • Error
    • Place
    • Signature

Written Exam Prerequisites (CARS 401.13, 421.13)

  • medical (all);
  • id (all);
  • English/French competency;
  • recommendation letter dated within 60 days prior to the written exam (Gyroplane, PPL, CPL, FI4: all ground completed);
  • experience:
    • Gyroplane, RPP, PPL: 10 hours in the same cat of aircraft OR ultralight permit;
    • FI4: 50% of flight training and all gound school;
    • FI: 50% of the experience;
    • IR: 20 instrument hours;
    • ATPL: ground school and group 1 IR;
    • others: 50% of flight experience.

Flight Test Prerequisites (CARS 401.14, 421.14)

  • medical (all);
  • id (all);
  • recommendation letter dated within 30 days prior to the flight test:
    • passenger-carrying ultralight;
    • gyroplane;
    • RPP Aeroplane;
    • PPL;
    • CPL (including written deficiency knowledge check).
  • written test results (CPL);
  • experience:
    • Gyroplane, PPL: 35 hours;
    • passenger carrying ultralight, RPP: 100% experience;
    • others: 75% experience;
    • FI, IR: all requirements;
    • FI ultralight: 25 hours.

Medical Requirements (CARS 404.01)

  • Cat 1: ATPL, CPL, Flight Engineer;
    • Validity: 12 month; 6 months for 40+ single-pilot air transport carrying passengers or 60+;
    • ECG: first medical; every 2 years between 30 and 40; every year over 40;
    • Audio: first medical; first medical after 55;
    • Vision: 20/30 for each eye;
    • Chest X-Ray if respiratory problem is suspected;
  • Cat 2: ATC;
  • Cat 3: PPL, SPP, baloons, gliders;
    • Validity: 60 months under 40; 24 months 40+; 60 months all student pilots; 24 months overseas validity;
    • ECG: first medical after 40;
    • audiogram if cannot hear the examiner whispering 6 feet away;
    • Vision: 20/30 for each eye;
    • Chest X-Ray if respiratory problem is suspected;
  • Cat 4: SPP, RPP, unltralights, gliders;
    • must sign a declaration countersigned by any physician.

Flight Training Program (CARS 425.13, 405.14)

  • Name;
  • Minimum age;
  • Medical fitness;
  • Knowledge;
  • Experience;
  • Minimum weather
    • day/night/VFR/IFR;
    • ceiling/visibility/crosswind/temperature limits;
    • local/XC;
  • Fuel reserves
    • dual/solo;
    • local/XC;
  • Practice area description;
  • Reporting of aircraft defects;
  • Securing of an aircraft;
  • Forced landing procedures;
  • Special safety considerations for the location.

Integrated CPL Hours

  • 300 hours ground (at least 50% classroom)
  • 150 flight hours (10 sim)
  • 70 PIC
  • 30 XC PIC (with 300 nm flight)
  • 10 night (5 dual, 2 XC, 5 solo, 10 take-offs and landings)
  • 5 complex or TA

Integrated CPL/IR

  • 400 hours ground (at least 50% classroom)
  • 190 flight hours (40 sim)
  • 100 dual (40 sim)
  • 90 PIC
  • 50 XC PIC (with 300 nm flight)
  • 10 night (5 dual, 2 XC, 5 solo, 10 take-offs and landings)
  • 5 complex or TA
  • 60 instrument (30 sim or 40 sim if can be used for renewals)
    • 40 dual
    • IFR XC 100 nm on and IFR flight plan with approaches at 2 different locations

Integrated ATP

  • 750 hours ground (at least 500 classroom)
  • 205 flight hours (55 sim)
  • 105 dual (55 sim)
  • 100 PIC
  • 50 XC PIC (with 300 nm flight)
  • 10 night (5 dual, 2 XC, 5 solo, 10 take-offs and landings)
  • 5 complex or TA
  • 75 instrument (30 sim or 55 sim if can be used for renewals)
    • 40 dual
    • IFR XC 100 nm on and IFR flight plan with approaches at 2 different locations
    • 15 MCC in a multi-engine with a copilot requirement or sim

Credits for integrated CPL/CPL-IR/ATP

  • 30 hours flight
  • 20 hours dual

Oxygen

  • Unpressurized
    • above 10000 and at and below 13000: all crew members and 10 percents of passengers, entire period of flight exceeding 30 min
    • above 13000: entire period of flight for all persons on board; air transport service not less than one hour
  • Pressurized
    • above 10000 and at and below 13000: all crew members and 10 percents of passengers, entire period of flight exceeding 30 min
    • above 13000: entire period of flight for all persons on board;
    • air transport services: 30 min for crew and 10% passengers; 2 hours for flight crew for aircrafts capable of flight exceeding FL250; 10 min for all passengers

Land Airplanes over Water

  • Flotation devices
    • Single-Engine: gliding distance (distance from the shore from which the airplane can make it after an engine failure)
    • Multi-Engine: 50 NM from the shore
  • Rafts
    • Single-Engine or Multi-Engine not able to maintain an altitude with one engine inoperative: 100 NM or 30 minutes at filed cruise speed
    • Multi-Engine: 200 NM or 60 minutes at filed cruise speed

Operation in a FTU (CARS 406.01)

See CARS

Fuel Mixture

  • Chemically correct – 1:15
  • Best power – 1:14
  • Lean mixture
    • Rough engine operation
    • Backfiring
    • Overheating
    • Sudden stop
  • Rich mixture
    • Fuel consumption
    • Spark plug fouling
    • Combustion chamber deposits
    • Rough engine running
    • Loss of power

Propellers

  • Propeller efficiency – the ratio of thrust HP to brake HP
  • Geometric pitch – theoretical distance a prop should advance in one rotation
  • Effective pitch – actual distance a prop advances in one rotation
  • Propeller slip – the difference between geometric pitch and effective pitch

Propeller Effects

  • Torque
  • Slipstream
  • Gyroscopic precession
  • Asymmetric thrust (P-factor)

Drag

  • Induced drag
  • Parasite drag
    • Form drag
    • Skin friction drag
    • Interference drag (due to parts attached to each other)

AoA and Lift in the Maneuvers

  • Descending turn
    • Inner wing – higher AoA
    • Power-off descent – equal lift for both wings
  • Climbing turn
    • Outer wing – higher AoA
    • Outer wing – greater lift
  • Slipping turn
    • High wing stalls first
  • Skidding turn
    • Low wing stalls first
  • Spiral dive
    • Outer wing – higher lift due to higher speed
  • Spin
    • Outer wing – higher AoA

W&B Definitions

  • Standard Empty Weight – the weight of the aircraft with all the standard equipment installed including unusable fuel and engine oil
  • Standard Airplane Weight – the weight of the aircraft with all the standard equipment installed NOT including unusable fuel and engine oil
  • Basic Empty Weight – the weight of the aircraft with all of its optional equipment installed, for MOST of airplanes this includes unusable fuel and engine oil (NOT for ALL)
  • Zero Fuel Weight – weight of airplane, pilot, crew, passenger(s), baggage, freight, oil and unusable fuel
  • Useful load includes usable fuel, the pilot, crew, passenger(s), baggage, freight
  • Maximum Take-Off Weight – BEW plus useful load
  • Maximum Ramp Weight – max weight approved for ground manoeuvring
  • Usable fuel – fuel available for flight planning
  • Unusable fuel – fuel remaining in the tanks after the runount test

Performance Factorizations

  • Grass runway: +15% to the ground roll

Vestibular Illusions

  • Leans
  • Graveyard spin
  • Graveyard spiral
  • Coriolis – a sensation of rolling, yawing or pitching when the pilot quickly moves his head

Somatogravic Illusions (Utricle and Saccule)

  • Inversion
  • Head-up illusion
  • Head-down illusion

TUC

AltitudeConsiousness Time
20 0005 – 12 min
25 0002 – 3 min
30 00045 – 75 sec
35 00030 – 60 sec
40 00010 – 30 sec
45 00012 – 15 sec
50 000+<12 sec
TUC

Hypoxia

  • Hypoxic – low oxygen level in the bloodstream (usually at high altitudes)
  • Anaemic – due to decreasing of the red blood cells (heavy bleeding, cancer, anaemia, CO poisoning)
  • Stagnant – blood is unable to be pumped to the head (due to G-forces or extreme cold)
  • Histotoxic – inability of cells to use the oxygen available (chemical or cyanide poisoning, intoxication, high blood alcohol levels)

Symptoms

  • Hypoxia: cyanosis (blue nails), euphoria, nausea, DM problems
  • CO poisoning: nausea, ringing in the ears, drowsiness, sluggishness, vomiting, chest pain, confusion
  • Hyperventilation: light head

Effects

  • Positive g-load: black-out
  • Negative g-load: red-out

Hazardous Attitudes

  • Anti-Authority
    • don’t tell me!
    • antidote: follow the rules, they are usually right
  • Impulsivity
    • do something – quickly!
    • antidote: not so fast, think first
  • Invulnerability
    • it won’t happen to me!
    • antidote: it CAN happen to me
  • Macho
    • I can do it!
    • antidote: taking changes is foolish
  • Resignation
    • what’s the use?
    • antidote: I’m not helpless, I can make a difference

Airspeed

  • ICE-Tea
    • Indicated
    • Calibrated
    • Equivalent
    • True
  • IAS to TAS (less than 250 kt): add 2% for each 1000 feet

Airspeed Limitations

  • Below 10000 feet: 250 kts
  • Below 3000 feet in 10 NM of the airport: 200 kts
  • Holding speeds
    • <= 6000 feet: 200 KIAS
    • 6000 feet < alt <= 14000 feet: 230 KIAS
    • > 14000 feet: 265 KIAS

Stall Speed Factors

  • Stall speed increases due to:
    • Forward CG
    • Higher weight
    • Turbulence (potential sudden increase AoA)
    • Airfoil contamination (even insects on the wing) – roughness similar to medium/coarse sandpaper reduces lift by up to 30% and increases drag up to 40%
  • Stall speed decreases due to:
    • Aft CG
    • Lighter airplane
    • More power (upward thrust component reduces AoA, extra airflow from prop increases lift)

Wind Effects

  • Wind shear: headwind reduction or tailwind increase cases airspeed drop
  • Approach speed: add half of the gust factor

Stalls Types

  • Accelerated stall – rapid pitch change can cause critical AoA even at high speed since the relative airflow need some time to change

Lift/Drag

  • Lift: L = CL (1/2 ρ V2) S
  • Drag: D = CD (1/2 ρ V2) S
  • Speed in a turn: Vb = V √ (load factor)
  • Load factor: n = 1 / cos(bank angle)

Speed Definitions

  • Vx – best climb angle speed (max altitude in the shortest distance)
  • Vy – best climb rate speed (max altitude in the shortest time)
  • Va – maneuvering speed (full aerodynamic control surface deflection will not overstress the aircraft)
  • Vra – turbulence penetration speed (Rough Air)
  • Vyse – best climb rate speed with one engine inoperative (blue line on ASI)
  • Vmc – minimum control speed with one engine inoperative (red line on ASI)
    • max aft CG
    • min weight
  • Vf – maximum speed at which wing flaps may be extended
  • Vfe – maximum speed with the wing flaps extended (Flaps Extended)
  • Vle – maximum speed with the landing gear extended
  • Vs0 – stall speed with gear and flaps extended (Stuff Out)
  • Vs1 – stall speed in a clean aircraft (Stuff In)
  • VNE – maximum speed that the aircraft can be operated (Never Exceed)
  • VNO – maximum structural cruising speed (Normal Operation)
  • V1 – decision speed (abort takeoff only below this speed)
  • Vr – rotation speed (rotate at this speed)
  • Vx – maximum climb angle speed
  • V2 – takeoff safety speed (the aircraft can safely flown on one engine)
  • VSSE – intentional one engine inoperative speed (if not given use Vmc + 10 kias)

Altitudes

  • Indicated – what we see on the altimeter
  • Pressure – based on the standard atmosphere (we can see by setting 29.92 on the altimeter)
  • True – exact height above MSL; all charts use true altitudes
  • Absolute – true height AGL
  • Density – PA corrected for nonstandard temperature

Coordinated Turns

  • Bank angle = KTAS / 10 + 7
  • Rate: 2 min for 360 degrees (3 sec per degree)

Wheelbarrowing

The situation when the nose wheel firstly contacts the ground is called wheelbarrowing. More detailed explanation is here.

During take-off, “wheelbarrowing” may occur at lower speeds than during landing due to the slipstream increasing the lifting effect of the horizontal stabilizer. The use of excessive forward elevator control pressure during take-off to hold the aircraft on the ground to speeds above normal take-off speed could, if a “yaw” force is introduced, result in serious wheelbarrowing (exam question!).

EGT

  • Best power: 100 degrees rich of peak EGT
  • Best economy: peak EGT

Meteorology

Temperature Lapse Rates

  • ISA: 1.98 degrees per 1000 feet
  • DALR: 3 degrees per 1000 feet
  • SALR: 1.5 degrees per 1000 feet
  • Dew point change: 0.5 degrees per 1000 feet
  • Cloud base: 2.5 degrees per 1000 feet (DALR – dew point change)

Cold Front

BeforeDuring the passageAfter
WindsS to SWGusts, veer and increaseW to NW
TemperatureWarmSudden dropSteady drop
PressureFalling steadilySharp riseSteady rise
CloudsIncreasing CU, TCU, CBCBSlow moving (stable air) NS, AS, CI; fast moving (unstable air) CU
PrecipitationShort showersHeavy rain, TS, hailShowers then cleaning
Dew PointHigh and steadySharp dropLowering
VisibilityFair to poor in hazePoor and improvingGood except in showers
Cold fronts weather

Warm Front

BeforeDuring the passageAfter
WindsS to SWVariable and veersS to SW
TemperatureCool to cold an warmingSteady riseSteady
PressureFalling graduallyLeveling offSlight rise then fall
CloudsCI, CS, AS, NS, St, sometimes fog; CB and TCU in summer when fast movingSt, NSClearing with scattered SC, occasionally CB in summer
PrecipitationLight to moderate: rain, snow, sleet, or drizzleDrizzle or noneNone, sometimes light rain or showers
Dew PointSteady riseSteadyRise then steady
VisibilityPoorPoor and improvingFair in haze
Warm fronts weather

Pressure Levels

  • FL50 – 850 mb
  • FL100 – 700 mb
  • FL180 – 500 mb
  • FL240 – 400 mb
  • FL300 – 300 mb
  • FL340 – 250 mb
  • FL390 – 200 mb
  • FL450 – 150 mb

FAA VFR Required equipment (91.205): A TOMATO FLAMES

  • A – airspeed indicator
  • T – tachometer (for each engine)
  • O – oil pressure gauge (for each engine using a pressure system)
  • M – manifold pressure gauge (for each altitude engine)
  • A – altimeter
  • T – temperature gauge (for each liquid-cooled engine)
  • O – oil temperature gauge (for each engine)
  • F – fuel gauge
  • L – landing gear position indicator
  • A – anti-collision lights
  • M – magnetic compass
  • E – ELT
  • S – safety belts

US VHF Frequences

  • 122.7: CTAF
  • 122.2: universal FSS
  • 122.0: en-route flight advisory service (flight watch)
  • 121.3: ground
  • 121.7: ground
  • 121.9: ground
  • 122.8: unicom (CTAF)
  • 122.9: unicom (CTAF)
  • 122.95: unicom (CTAF) for controlled airports
  • 123.0: unicom (CTAF)
  • 123.05: unicom (CTAF)
  • 122.75: air-to-air GA fixed-wing
  • 123.025: air-to-air GA helicopters
  • 123.3: air-to-air gliders
  • 123.4: air-to-air gliders
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Milestones

04/09/2017: My First Flight
04/25/2017: EASA PPL written exam (6 exams passed)
05/21/2017: Radio Operator Certificate (Europe VFR)
05/22/2017: EASA PPL written exam (all passed)
05/26/2017: The First Solo!
05/28/2017: Solo cross-country >270 km
05/31/2017: EASA PPL check-ride
07/22/2017: EASA IFR English
08/03/2017: 100 hours TT
12/04/2017: The first IFR flight
12/28/2017: FAA IR written
02/16/2018: FAA IR check-ride
05/28/2018: FAA Tailwheel endorsement
06/04/2018: FAA CPL long cross-country
06/07/2018: FAA CPL written
07/16/2018: FAA CPL check-ride
07/28/2018: FAA CPL ME rating
08/03/2018: FAA HP endorsement
06/03/2019: EASA ATPL theory (6/14)
07/03/2019: EASA ATPL theory (11/14)
07/15/2019: FAA IR IPC
07/18/2019: FAA CPL SES rating
08/07/2019: EASA ATPL theory (done)
10/10/2019: EASA NVFR
10/13/2019: EASA IR/PBN SE
11/19/2019: Solo XC > 540 km
12/06/2019: EASA CPL
12/10/2019: EASA AMEL
02/20/2020: Cessna 210 endorsement
08/30/2021: FAVT validation
05/27/2022: TCCA CPL/IR written
05/31/2022: Radio Operator Certificate Canada