IATRA Questions with Answers

I started collecting IATRA questions from various sources (mainly forums and books), along with the answers I suppose to be correct from my knowledge. Mainly I do that for my own exam preparation, but probably it will help someone who is preparing too.

Q: The operator, in respect to an aircraft, is:
A: Aircraft operator means a person who uses, causes to be used, or authorizes to be used an aircraft, with or without the right of legal control (as owner, lessee, or otherwise), for the purpose of air navigation including the piloting of aircraft, or on any part of the surface of an airport.

Q: No aircraft should be operated below 10000 feet MSL at what speed
A: 250 kt IAS
Note: class C or D no more than 200 kt IAS at and below 2500 feet within 4 nm of an airport.

Q: What is dynamic hydroplaning
A: Dynamic hydroplaning develops at high-speeds during takeoffs or landings, but can persist to significantly slower speeds once it occurs. It does not begin unless some groundspeed is exceeded. It leaves no physical evidence on tyre or runway surface. Dynamic hydroplaning occurs when the groundspeed (in knots) is at least 8.73 times the square root of the tire pressure (in PSI) of the main tires.
Note: Gleim explanation

Q: What is viscous hydroplaning
A: Viscous hydroplaning occurs due to the viscous properties of water. Low tire pressure and low speeds, no standing water.

Q: A pilot on a VFR flight plan must revise ETA if entering the ADIZ when/where?
A: You must be within 20 nm and +/- 5 minutes of the point specified in your flight plan. If you will not meet these tolerances, revise your and point with an ATC Unit, FIC, FSS or CARS.

Q: What do vortex generators do?
A: They delay flow separation, energizing the boundary layer, which delays a stall and allows to operate at higher AoA.
Note: paper on boldmethod

Q: Decode a NOTAM
A: nice explanation

Q: NOTAM with APRX
A: At a time quoted in APRX the replacing/cancelling NOTAM must be issued
Note: NOTAM overview

Q: Decode a TAF, compare TAF with current METAR and say if the weather is moving faster/slower.
A: TAF explanation

Q: Transponder requirements in class C airspace
A: When operating in transponder airspace (all Canadian Class A, B, and C airspace, as well as some Class D and E airspace (CAR 601.03)), your aircraft must be equipped with a Mode C transponder (CAR 605.35).

Q: What does a machmeter do?
A: A machmeter is an instrument which provides an indication of the Mach number (M), which is the ratio between the aircraft true air speed (TAS) and the local speed of sound (LSS). The machmeter uses a pitot-static system to measure the mach number.

Q: In beta range, what controls the prop pitch?
A: The beta range is used for ground operations inclusive of slowing the aircraft after landing. Below flight idle, the power levers control the blade pitch directly through a mechanical linkage, usually accomplished by pulling the power levers backward over a gate mechanism (aft for decelerating on the runway after landing or for backing up).
Note: With the power lever(s) in the ground idle position, the blade pitch is such that the propeller produces its minimum level of thrust.

Q: How to control the prop in BETA?
A: Keywords: power lever, mechanical or hydromechanical linkage.

Q: What stops the prop from going into reverse while flying?
A: There is normally some kind of detent or gate that requires a deliberate movement or unlatching to move below flight idle. Mechanically the engine idle gates and the low pitch stops (or high pitch stops) are used to prevent the prop going into beta. They can be hydromechanical. The flight idle stop additionally prevents the prop control from going into revers should the power lever linkages break.

Q: You encounter freezing rain while flying at 4000 feet. What do you do?
A: There is a warm front approaching, so possibly climb.

Q: Compressor stall in a jet engine?
A: Caused by excessive angle of attack on the compressor blades.

Q: What are compressor bleed valves are used for?
A: The bleed valve is designed to prevent surging by venting out extra pressure from the axial compressor (bleeding air from the compressor), so for avoiding compressor stall at startup or acceleration of a gas turbine engine.

Q: What is EPR?
A: Engine Pressure Ratio (EPR), in a jet engine, is the ratio of the turbine discharge pressure divided by the compressor inlet pressure.

Q: you are on a flight that is 2 hours including a climb of 20 minutes. You are given fuel burns for a climb, cruise, and a hold. You are night VFR. Calculate the total fuel required.
A: 20 min climb + 1h 40 min cruise + 45 min reserve (cruise). No holding here despite the question could trick you in it.

Q: Calculate SAR and SGR
A: SGR = Groundspeed / fuel burn; SAR= TAS / fuel burn. Wind effect/factor can be given instead of just wind speeds.
Note: better altitude is the altitude with better SGR!

Q: The greatest difference between ground and slant distance for DME occurs when?
A: High altitude, short range. Extreme case: directly overhead.

Q: you are above your threshold crossing speed when you are landing. The best way to stop the aircraft as soon as possible is to?
A: Touchdown ASAP on the main wheels, use maximum braking (hopefully).
Note: something about reverse thrust, then nose gear down, then max braking and reverse thrust (still can’t figure out the fully correct answer)

Q: you are in the jetstream and the temperature is dropping. The best way to avoid turbulence is to?
A: Descend. Usually the width of jet streams are much larger than their height, so changing course will not help. And if the temperature is dropping, we’re probably flying from high to low temp, and if we climb we can reach tropopause

Q: Calculate the time to critical point.
A: Critical point is an equal time point. Calculate ground speed and compare. In case of diversion, plot the solution and compute: https://skybrary.aero/articles/critical-point-cp

Q: Calculate true wind velocity/direction with given magnetic heading, speed, magnetic track and the variation.
A: E6B, or basic geometry:
Crosswind velocity = √(TAS2 – GS2)
Headwind velocity = TAS * sin(angle between heading and track)

Q: W&B, calculate weight to move for moving CG to some distance.
A: (Weight of aircraft) / (Weight to move) = (Weight moving dist) / (CG moving dist)

Q: Performance, calculate max allowable takeoff weight using accelerate-go chart.
A: Just use the chart. I will make a separate page for that sort of problem later.

Q: Deicing fluids: type II and IV fluids are bad for which types of aircraft?
A: A/C with a rotation speed <100 kts since their shear speed is about 100 kts (the speed when they wipe off the critical surfaces)
Note:
type I is for ice removal (usually water/glycol mix)
type II is more viscous with about 100 kts shear speed
type III has longer holdover time than type I but shorter than type II
type IV is basically type II with much longer holdover time

Q: Which part of an airplane do you de-ice first?
A: As a guideline, start at the top and work down, but work symmetrically. Some aircraft require specific control surface settings for deicing.

Q: You are flying along in -20 temperatutre, and you land at an airport for a short stop that has a temp of +10 and a dewpoint of +9. What can occur?
A: Cold soaking phenomenon, frost on the wings. The fuel can be still cold, and the water in contact with a wing will freeze to the wing surfaces.

Q: CRM is good because?
A: It allows to use input from all the crew members and refers to the effective use of all resources available to the pilot.

Q: An effective captain does…
A: recognizes reduced effectiveness of crew under stress; takes input from all crew members; something else.

Q: Question about reading the jet stream on an upper level chart. What height and what turbulence was associated with it.
A: Usually 200mb and 300mb charts are used. Maps using: this and this

Q: When taking medication, what precautions should be taken for flying?
A: Consult your AME.

Q: What happens when precipitation falls onto a cold soaked wing?
A: I believe that the ice will accumulate even more up to clear ice.

Q: When is your True Altitude lower than Indicated?
A: Cold (low) temp, low pressure.

Q: If you find yourself strongly disagree with the Captain, how do you approach the situation?
A: Overcome shyness to question, ask for clarification, and state your viewpoint.

Q: What is the floor of the Arctic CA?
A: FL270
Note: SCA FL180, NCA FL230, ACA FL270, class B from 12500 up to but not including 18000.

Q: How do you go over the checklist in the cockpit?
A: I believe that have it in hand, verbalize each item and both pilots should participate in the process.

Q: When reading checklist and you’re interrupted, the best way to avoid missing items is:
A: Go over the checklist once more from the beginning.

Q: How does airborne weather radar detect thunderstorms and lightning while you are in the cloud?
A: Probably it’s getting worse due to attenuation, but don’t know what TC wants in this question.

Q: How does the weather radar operate?
A: Return signal is based on water droplet size.

Q: Thunderstorm detection: is it harder to detect thunderstorms while in cloud with precipitation?
A: Yes, because of a signal attenuation.

Q: What aircraft configuration produces the worst vortices?
A: Heavy, slow moving aircraft in the clean configuration.

Q: Who is responsible for wake turbulence separation?
A: The PIC has the final authority. ATC can suggest, and the PIC can request waiver.

Q: How to avoid wake turbulence on takeoff?
A: Get airborne before previous aircraft rotation, stay above its glide path.

Q: How to avoid wake turbulence on landing?
A: Go above the previous aircraft glide path, land beyond its touchdown point.

Q: Clear ice rather than rime ice is most likely to occur in:
A: CB, slowly freezing large water droplets.

Q: Rime ice is most likely to occur:
A: Small droplets, freezing almost instantly, low rate of catch.

Q: Altimeter settings: are you higher/lower and how much with different settings.
A: Standard pressure is 29.92. Each inch corresponds to 1000 feet: for example, with 28.92 airport setting and 29.92 on the subscale you’re 1000 feet higher.

Q: What conditions are causing whiteouts?
A: Whiteout is a weather condition that causes disorientation and low visibility by snow, overcast cloud and fog. Basically, the whiteout in aviation occurs when the pilots cannot see the visible horizon because of the terrain covered with snow in the white sky.
Note: The answer COULD be “overcast only” (from the feedback).

Q: Calculate TAS from IAS.
A: TAS = IAS * (1 + 0.02 * (Altitude) / 1000).

Q: Read GFA.
A: Just read GFA.

Q: Isotachs spaced closely together on 250 hpa chart you can expect?
A: Sufficient horizontal wind shear for the occurrence of CAT.

Q: VFR in different airspaces.
A: See Canadian airspace.

Q: Contamination: no pilot shall take off in conditions…
A: Unless the aircraft is inspected for contamination.

Q: True Altitude in mountain conditions, temperature drops sharply, what’s the danger?
A: Indicated altitude can be much lower than the true altitude.

Q: V2, V1, Vr
A: V2 – takeoff safety speed. V1 – decision speed. Vr – rotation speed. Know the other speeds too!

Q: What is the difference between Vb and Vra?
A: Vb is the the maximum speed at which gusts will not overstress the aircraft, when the Vra is the recommended turbulence penetration speed, and it is not greater than Vb and sufficiently less than VMO.

Q: Define the “Balanced Field Length”.
A: We have the balanced field when our Take-off Distance Required
(TODR) equals our Accelerated Stop Distance Required (ASDR).
Note: The balanced field length is the shortest field length at which a balanced field takeoff can be performed. Factors affecting the balanced field length include: the mass of the aircraft – higher mass results in slower acceleration and higher takeoff speed.

Q: ASDA, TORA, TODA definitions.
A: ASDA = TORA + Stopway; TODA = TORA + Clearway.

Q: Overshooting in IMC or at night – what can happen?
A: Pilot tempted to lower nose and potentially can fly into terrain.

Q: When are you most likely to encounter CFIT?
A: When you get below DH or MDA.

Q: How early you can fly after excessive alcohol consumption?
A: 24 hours after the last drink and more (48 hours?) after excessive drinking.

Q: 3-bar VASIS.
A: The furthest one is for high cockpit aircraft (cockpit position is 25 feet (8 meters) or more above the extended landing gear).

Q: ETOPS.
A: No idea for now, will update, just left a placeholder for now.

Q: LAHSO?
A: When given this clearance it is the pilots responsibility to hold short of the position given and the instruction must be read back. Must say if unable to comply! Must read back!

Q: Describe VOLMET.
A: The purpose of a VOLMET broadcast is to provide weather information to aircraft in flight.

Q: Describe MEL.
A: A minimum equipment list (MEL) is a list which provides for the operation of aircraft, subject to specified conditions, with particular equipment inoperative (which is) prepared by an operator in conformity with, or more restrictive than, the MMEL established for the aircraft type.
Note: skybrary

Q: For flights above a certain altitude crew members need training on hypoxia. Which level?
A: Pilots and crewmembers of flights exceeding 25,000 feet/mean sea level (msl) are required to complete ground training in high-altitude physiology, including hypoxia training

Q: Communication failure, ATC will clear the zone for:
A: 30 min

Q: Flight over water regulations.
A: TBD

Q: Windshear recovery
A: TBD

Q: Journey log requirements
A: TBD

Q: How does the GPS calculate position?
A: The computation is based on the triangulation principle. Multiple satellites beam signals at the speed of light toward Earth, and your device receives the signals at slightly different times, based on how far away each satellite is from your location. These times can be used to calculate the differences in distance from each satellite to determine your location on Earth.

Q: GPS standalone and Overlay approaches
A: TBD

Q: GPS accuracy, availability and integrity
A: TBD

Q: Seatbelts
A: TBD

Q: Tailplane stalls
A: TBD

Q: Type rating, class rating privileges
A: TBD

Q: CPL privileges, ATPL privileges
A: TBD

Q: Flight duty time
A: TBD

Q: IFR destination and alternate requirements
A: TBD

Q: Cold temp corrections. What altitudes do you adjust? Procedure turn etc. When don’t you adjust?
A: TBD

Q: TCAS resolutions
A: Comply immediately, advice ATC.

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Milestones

04/09/2017: My First Flight
04/25/2017: EASA PPL written exam (6 exams passed)
05/21/2017: Radio Operator Certificate (Europe VFR)
05/22/2017: EASA PPL written exam (all passed)
05/26/2017: The First Solo!
05/28/2017: Solo cross-country >270 km
05/31/2017: EASA PPL check-ride
07/22/2017: EASA IFR English
08/03/2017: 100 hours TT
12/04/2017: The first IFR flight
12/28/2017: FAA IR written
02/16/2018: FAA IR check-ride
05/28/2018: FAA Tailwheel endorsement
06/04/2018: FAA CPL long cross-country
06/07/2018: FAA CPL written
07/16/2018: FAA CPL check-ride
07/28/2018: FAA CPL ME rating
08/03/2018: FAA HP endorsement
06/03/2019: EASA ATPL theory (6/14)
07/03/2019: EASA ATPL theory (11/14)
07/15/2019: FAA IR IPC
07/18/2019: FAA CPL SES rating
08/07/2019: EASA ATPL theory (done)
10/10/2019: EASA NVFR
10/13/2019: EASA IR/PBN SE
11/19/2019: Solo XC > 540 km
12/06/2019: EASA CPL
12/10/2019: EASA AMEL
02/20/2020: Cessna 210 endorsement
08/30/2021: FAVT validation
05/27/2022: TCCA CPL/IR written
05/31/2022: Radio Operator Certificate Canada